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**NETWORK>COHESION>SIMMELIAN/EMBEDDED TIES**

**PURPOSE **Identify Simmelian and embedded ties.

**DESCRIPTION **A Simmelian tie is a reciprocally connected pair with mutual ties to third parties and hence it is an edge embedded in a clique or triple. This routine counts the number of Simmelian ties between each pair of actors. Hence if actor i and j are in three separate triples together then the Simmelian matrix will have a three in row i column j. For cliques this would be the same as the clique co-membership matrix with the diagonal set to zero.

If we only consider out-going ties than if i and j have a reciprocated edge then this is Simmelian if they both have an out-going link to a third actor k.

**PARAMETERS**

** Input Dataset:**

Name of UCINET file containing network data. Data type: Digraph

**Output Dataset:**

** **Name of file containing results. Default =<Inputfilename>- Simmel

** ****Method**

** **Choice of using triples as the groups or cliques.(cliques not yet implemented)

**Type of Output**

Weighted (counts) gives then number of triples or cliques the tie is embedded in.

Unweighted (binary) indicates whether there is a Simmelian tie between each pair of actors

**PermissableTypes of ties **

** **Reciprocated only considers reciprocated ties. Outgoing looks at the outward ties so that each actor in the reciprocated dyad has an out-going link to the mutual third party.

**LOG FILE **Matrix containing a count of the number of Simmelian ties for each pair of actors.

**TIMING **O(N^3)

**COMMENTS **Currently the clique option is not implemented. However running a clique analysis will give the Simmelian ties in the clique co-membership matrix.

**REFERENCES **Krackhardt D 1999. The ties that torture: Simmelian Tie Analysis in Organizations. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 16 183-210.