An introduction to
the measurement and construction of data. As you may realize, data is
not simply "collected." It is constructed. And data can be constructed
from data, as when we build indices and multi-item scales.
Scales of measurement
brief mention of scaling,
thurstone, guttman, likert, magnitude
- Borgatti. Notes on measurement. [html]
- Sarle. Measurement Theory: Frequently Asked Questions. [html]
- Wikipedia. Weight. [html]
- Trochim. Unidimensional scaling [php]
(skim -- will be covered in depth later)
- Dawes, R.M. 1977. "Suppose we measured height
with rating scales instead of rulers."
Applied Psychological Measurement 1(2):267-273 [^pdf]
- S. S. Stevens (1946), Science 103, 677 [^pdf]
- Luce and Narens. Science. [^pdf]
- Luce. Meaningfulness and invariance. [^pdf]
- Zegers, F. E., & ten Berge, J. M. F. (1985). A
family of association coefficients for metric scales.
Psychometrika, 50(1), 17-24 [PDF]
- “after a century of theory and research on
psychological test scores, for most test scores we still have no
idea whether they really measure something, or are no more than
relatively arbitrary summations of item responses”
--- Borsboom, 2005
Formal measurement theory
Stevens, S.S. 1951. Mathematics,
measurement and psychophysics. In
Handbook of Experimental Psychology, ed. S.S. Stevens, New York: Wiley.
D. H. Krantz, R. D. Luce, P.
Suppes, A. Tversky, 1971. Foundations of Measurement. (Academic Press, New
F. S. Roberts. 1979. Measurement
Theory. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1979).
L. Narens, Abstract Measurement
Theory (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985)
Narens. Measurement, Theory of. [pdf]
Suppes, P. and Zinnes, J.L. 1963.
Basic measurement theory. In Handbook
of Mathematical Psychology, Vol. 1, ed. R.D. Luce, R.R. Bush and
E. Galanter, New York: Wiley.
Luce, R. D., Krantz, D. H., Suppes, P., and Tversky, A. (1990),
Foundations of measurement, Vol. III: Representation, axiomatization, and
invariance, New York: Academic Press.
- Suppes, P., Krantz, D. H., Luce, R. D., and Tversky, A. (1989),
Foundations of measurement, Vol. II: Geometrical, threshold, and
probabilistic respresentations, New York: Academic Press.
Statistics and Measurement
- Hand, D.J. (1996), "Statistics and the theory of measurement," with
discussion, J. of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 159, 445-492 [^pdf]
Arguments against measurement level in statistics
- Lord, F.M. (1953), "On the Statistical Treatment of Football
Numbers," American Psychologist, 8, 750-751
- Velleman, P.F., and Wilkinson, L. (1993), "Nominal, Ordinal,
Interval, and Ratio Typologies Are Misleading," The American
Statistician, 47, 65-72.
On data construction
- Bernard, H. R., P. J. Pelto, O. Werner, J. Boster, A. K. Romney,
A. Johnson, C. R. Ember, and A. Kasakoff. 1986. The construction of
primary data in cultural anthropology. Current Anthropology
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