Assignments are due on the day they are listed. Classification of reading into "methods", "theory" and "application" can be quite arbitrary. All items subject to change without notice. Please check the schedule frequently. 


D&G   Degenne & Forse
N&E   Nohria & Eccles
W&F   Wasserman & Faust
Burt   Burt, R.S. 1992. Structural Holes
W&G   Wasserman & Galaskiewicz. 1994. 

NOTE:  Highlighted items will be discussed specifically in class.

24 January.  Introduction

Reading: Freeman, L.C. 1996. Some Antecedents of Social Network Analysis'' Connections 19: 39-42  [HTML version]  [PDF version]

N&E:Intro; D&G:Intro; W&F:1

Optional: Mayhew, B. 1980. Structuralism vs. individualism part 1: Shadow boxing in the dark. Social Forces :335-375.

Krackhardt, D. and Brass, D. 1994. Intraorganizational networks: The micro side. In W&G

Slide Show


31 January.  Graphs & Matrices (the basics)

Methods: Borgatti, S.P. 1994. A quorum of graph theoretic concepts. Connections 17(1): 47-49.

Borgatti, S., Everett, M. & Freeman, L. 1999. Ucinet 5 for Windows: User's Guide. Harvard: Analytic Technologies. (ms word file)

Krackhardt, D., Blythe, J. & McGrath, C. 1994. Krackplot 3 User's Guide. Harvard: Analytic Technologies. (ms word file)

Lincoln, J.R. 1982. Intra (and inter-) organizational networks. Research in the sociology of organizations 1:1-38.

Tichy, Noel. 1981. Networks in organizations. Pp 225-249. In Nystrom, P.C. and Starbuck, W.H. (eds.) Handbook of Organizational Design. Vol 2. Oxford U press.

Theory: Granovetter, M. 1973. The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology 81:1287-1303.
Application: Hummon & Carley 1993. Social networks as normal science. Social Networks 15:71-106.

Freeman, L.C. 1997. Uncovering organizational hierarchies. Computational and Organizational Theory 3(1): 5-18

Optional: Breiger, R. 1974. The duality of persons and groups. Social Forces 53:181-190

Krackhardt, D. 1992. The strength of strong ties. In N&E.

D&G:1,3 (skip chapter 2); W&F:3-4

Play the Kevin Bacon Game!  It's fun!

Homework: Download Ucinet 5.

Download KP 3.2: Install in your ..\ucinet 5\datafiles folder!


WEDNESDAY 9 February.  Ego Networks

Methods: Gould, R. & Fernandez, R. 1989. Structures of mediation: A formal approach to brokerage in transaction networks. Sociological Methodology. 19: 89-126.


Borgatti, S.P. 1998. Structural Holes: Unpacking Burt's redundancy measures. CONNECTIONS 20(1):35-38


Wellman, B. & Frank, K. 1999. Network capital in a multi-level world. (scroll down to find this paper)

Application: Marsden, P.V. 1988. Homogeneity in confiding relations. Social Networks 10: 57-76.

Lin, Nan, Walter M. Ensel, and John C. Vaughn. 1981. Social Resources and Strength of Ties: Structural Factors in Occupational Status Attainment. American Sociological Review 46(4):393-405. [I don't have this]


MB119 Class Data

Optional: D&G:2

Mayhew, B. 1968. Behavioral observability and compliance with religious proscriptions on birth control. Social Forces 47: 60-70 [Mayhew's first article]

Burt, Gabbay, Holt, Moran. 1994. Contingent organization as a network theory: The culture-performance contingency function.Acta Sociologica 37: 345-370. Or look at any of the articles at Burt's website

Uzzi, B. 1996. The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: The network effect. American Sociological Review 61: 674-698

Lin, N. 1999. Social Networks and Status Attainment. Annual Review of Sociology 23. [I don't have this]

Burt, R.S. 1983. Range. Pp. 176-194 in Burt & Minor (Eds.) Applied Network Analysis. Beverly Hills: Sage.


Data Reading Assignment


14 February.  Data Collection & Social Cognition

Methods: Marsden, P.V. 1990. Network data and measurement. Annual Review of Sociology 16:435-63.

Krackhardt, D. 1987. Cognitive social structures. Social Networks 9:109-134

Theory: Bernard, H.R., Killworth, P. & Sailer, L. 1981. Summary of research on informant accuracy in network data, and on the reverse small world problem. Connections 4(2):11-25

Freeman, L.C., Romney, A.K., & Freeman, S. 1987. Cognitive structure and informant accuracy. American Anthropologist 89:310-325 

Application: Kilduff, M. & Krackhardt, D. 1994. Bringing the individual back in : A structural analysis of the internal market for reputation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal 37(1):87-108.

Krackhardt, D. 1990. Assessing the political landscape: Structure, cognition, and power in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 342-369.

Optional: See reading for April 3rd on transactive knowledge.

Data Collection Slide Show

Homework: Egonet assignment


21 February.  Hypothesis Testing

Methods: Baker, F. and Hubert, L. 1981. The analysis of social interaction data. Sociological Methods & Research 9(3): 339-361.

Krackhardt, D. 1988. Predicting with networks: Nonparametric multiple regression analyses of dyadic data. Social Networks 10:359-382

Borgatti, S. P. and Feld S. L. 1994. How to test Granovetter's theory of weak ties. Connections 17(1): 45-46 (clickable)

Baker, W. 1992. The network organization in theory and practice. in N&E.

Application: Barley, S. 1990. The alignment of technology and structure through roles and networks. Administrative Science Quarterly 35: 61-103.

Burkhardt, M. 1994. Social interaction effects following a technological change: A longitudinal investigation. Academy of Management Journal 37(4): 869-898.

Boster, J. 1986. Exchange of Varieties and Information between Aguaruna manioc cultivators. American Anthropologist 88:428-436. 

Optional: Hubert, L. & Schultz, L. 1976. Quadratic assignment as a general data analysis strategy. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology 29:190-241.

Testing Network Hypotheses: slide presentation

Homework: Data Collection assignment


28 February.  Centrality

Methods: Freeman, L.C. 1979. Centrality in social networks: Conceptual clarification. Social Networks 1: 215-239.

Bonacich, P. 1987. Power and centrality: A family of measures. American Journal of Sociology 92:1170-1182. (skim)

Brass, D. and Burkhardt, M. 1992. Centrality and power in organizations. Pp. 191-215 in E&N. 


Brass, D.J. & Krackhardt, D. 1999. The social capital of 21st century leaders. In J.G. Hunt, G.E. Dodge, & L. Wong (Eds.), Out-of-the-box leadership, 179-194. Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

Notes on Emerson (handout)

Application: Cook, K., Emerson, R., Gillmore, M. & Yamagishi, T. 1983. The distribution of power in exchange networks ... American Journal of Sociology 89: 275-305.

Markovsky, B., Willer, D. and Patton, T. 1988. Power relations in exchange networks. American Sociological Review 53: 220-236. (skim)

Optional: W&F:5; D&F:6

Cook, K. 1982. Network structures from an exchange perspective. Pp. 177-99 in Social Structure and Network Analysis Marsden, P. and Lin, N. (Eds.) Sage.

Freeman, L., Fararo, T., Bloomberg Jr, W. & Sunshine, M. 196x. Locating leaders in local communities: A comparison of some alternative approaches. American Sociological Review. :791-798.

Leavitt, H. 1951. Some effects of communication patterns on group performance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 46: 38-50.

Pitts, F. 1979. The medieval river trade network of Russia revisited. Social Networks 1: 285-292.

Shaw, M.E. 1964. Communication networks. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 1: 111-147. New York: Academic Press.

[Recall Burt:2 and Gould & Fernandez 1983]

Homework: QAP assignment


6 March.  Spring Break (no class)


13 March.  Groups, Cores and Peripheries

Methods: Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., & Shirey, P. 1990. LS sets, lambda sets and other cohesive subsets. Social Networks, 12: 337-357.

Borgatti, S.P. & Everett, M.G. 1999. Models of Core/Periphery structures. Social Networks 21: 375-395.

Everett, M.G. and Borgatti, S.P. 1999. Peripheries of cohesive subgroups. Social Networks 21: 397-407. 

Everett, M.G. and Borgatti, S.P. 1999. The centrality of groups and classes. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 23(3): 181-201.

Theory: Freeman, L.C. 1992. The Sociological Concept of `Group': An Empirical Test of Two Models.' American Journal of Sociology, 98, 1992, 55-79 
Application: Ancona, D. G., & Caldwell, D. F. (1992). Bridging the boundary: External activity and performance in organizational teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(4), 634-.

Johnson, J.C. 2000. Network evolution at the south pole.  [word file]

Barsky, N. A core/periphery structure in a corporate budgeting process. Connections 22(2): 1-29.

Optional: W&F:7; D&F:4(78-86 only)


Homework: Centrality assignment.


20 March.  Roles, Positions and Structural Similarity


Lorrain, F. & White, H.C. 1971. Structural equivalence of individuals in social networks. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 1: 49-80.  [skim only]

White, D.R. & Reitz, K.P. 1983. Graph & semigroup homomorphisms on networks of relations. Social Networks 5: 193-234. [skim]

Breiger, R., Boorman, S. & Arabie, P. 1975. An algorithm for clustering relational data with applications to social network analysis and comparison with multidimensional scaling. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 12: 328-383.

Burt, R.S. 1976. Positions in networks. Social Forces 55: 93-122.


Borgatti, S.P.  & Everett, M.G. 1992. The notion of position in social network analysis. In Marsden, P. (Ed.) Sociological Methodology 1992. London: Basil Blackwell.

Erickson, B. 1988. The relational basis of attitudes. In Wellman, B. & Berkowitz, S.D. (Eds.) Social Structures: A social network approach. Pp. 99-121. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burt, R.S. & Talmud, I. 1993. Market niche. 15: 133-149.

Application: DiMaggio, P. 1986. Structural analysis of organizational fields: A blockmodel approach. Research in Organizational Behavior 8: 335-70.

Galaskiewicz, J. & Burt, R.S. 1991. Interorganizational contagion in corporate philanthropy. Administrative Science Quarterly 36: 88-105.

Krackhardt, D. & Porter, L. 1986. The snowball effect: Turnover embedded in communication networks. Journal of Applied Psychology 71: 50-55.

Walker, G. 1985. Network position and cognition in a computer firm. Administrative Science Quarterly 30: 103-130.

Optional: W&F:9-12




27 March.  Diffusion Processes

27 March. Knowledge Management & Communities of Practice


Mullins, N., Hargens, L., Hecht, P. and Kick, E. 1977. The group structure of cocitation clusters: A comparative study. American Sociological Review 42: 552-562.

Theory: Wenger, E. 1998. Communities of Practice. [Vignettes and Chapter 2 only]

Wegner, D., Raymond, P. & Erber, R. 1991. Transactive memory in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 61(6): 923-929.

Wenger, E. 1996. Communities of practice: The social fabric of a learning organization. The Healthcare Forum Journal.

Wenger, E. 1996. How to optimize organizational learning. The Healthcare Forum Journal.

Application: Krackhardt, D. 1990. Assessing the political landscape: Structure, cognition, and power in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 342-369.

Check this page out!, and particularly their use of multidimensional scaling to locate knowledge

Ahuja, M. & Carley, K.1998. Network structure in virtual organizations. JCMC 3 

Optional: Examine this knowledge management resource page

Wegner, D., Giuliano, T., & Hertel, P. (1985).  Cognitive Interdependence in Close Relationships. In W. Ickes (Ed.) Compatible and Incompatible Relationships pp. 253-276 New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Moreland, R. 1999. Transactive memory: Learning who knows what in work groups and organizations. Pp. 3-31 in Thompson, Levine & Messick, Shared Cognition in Organizations: The management of knowledge. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Monge & Contractor. 2000. Emergence of communication networks.

Cohen & Levinthal. Absorptive capacity. 

March, J. 1991. Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science 2(1): 71-87.

Garud, R. 1997. On the distinction between know-how, know-why and know-what. Advances in Strategic Management 14: 81-101. 

Links: Knowledge mgmt page.
Homework: subgroups assignment


3 April.  Communities of Practice & Transactive Knowledge

3 April. Diffusion Processes

Methods: Watts, D. 1999. Networks, dynamics, and the small-world problem. American Journal of Sociology 105(2): 493-527. 
Theory: Notes on EV Rogers book The Diffusion of Innovations

DiMaggio, P. 1983. The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review 48: 147-160.

Abrahamson, E., & Rosenkopf, L. (1997). Social network effects on the extent of innovation diffusion: A computer simulation. Organization Science, 8(3), 289-309

Application: Walker, G. (1985). Network position and cognition in a computer firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 103-130.

Kraut, R., Rice, R.E., Cool, C. & Fish, R. (1998). Varieties of social influence: The role of utility and norms in the success of a new communication medium. Organization Science, 9(4), 437-453.

Burt, R. 1987. Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1287-1335.

Coleman, J., Katz, E. & Menzel, H. 1957. The diffusion of an innovation among physicians. Sociometry 20: 253-270.

Optional: Travers & Milgram, S. 1969. An experimental study of the small world problem. Sociometry 32: 425-443.

Klovdahl, A.S. 1985. Social networks and the spread of infectious diseases: The AIDS example. Social Science Medicine 21(11): 1203-1216.

Homework: See next week! (assignment moved)


10 April.  Social Capital

Methods: Borgatti, S.P., Jones, C. and Everett, M.G. 1998. Network measures of social capital. CONNECTIONS 21(2):-36

Everett, M. G., & Borgatti, S. P. 1999. The centrality of groups and classes. Journal of Mathematical Sociology. 23(3): 181-201.

Burt, R.S. 1992. Chapter 2 of Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition

Snijders, T.A.B. 1999. Prologue to the measurement of social capital. The Tocqueville Review 20(1): 27-44.

Theory: Putnam, R.1993. The prosperous community. The American Prospect Online 

Flap, H. 1999. Creation and returns of social capital: A new research program. The Tocqueville Review 20(1): 5-26.

Lin, N. 1999. Building a network theory of social capital. Connections 22(1)-28-51.

Cohen, W. & Levinthal, D. (1990). Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, pp. 128-152.

"The Network Structure of Social Capital," R. S. Burt (Research in Organizational Behavior, edited by Robert I. Sutton and Barry M. Staw, JAI Press, 2000; January 2000: NSSC, and OSWC is the handout for the Organization Science Winter Conference on social capital

Portes & Landolt

Application: Boxman, E. A. W., P. M. De Graaf, and Henk D. Flap. 1991. "The Impact of Social and Human Capital on the Income Attainment of Dutch Managers." Social Networks 13:51-73 
Optional: Borgatti, S.P. 1998. (Ed.) A SOCNET discussion on the origins of the term 'social capital'. Connections 21(2): 37-46.

Burt, R.S. (1997). The Contingent Value of Social Capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, pp. 339-365. 

Coleman, J. (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, pp. S95-S120

Putnam, R. 1995. Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital. Journal of Democracy 6(1) pp. 65-78. [I've seen this online]

Examine this social capital website

Homework: roles & positions assignment


17 April.  Marathon Day (no class)


24 April.  Inter-Organizational Networks



Theory: Granovetter, M. 1985. Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 91, No. 3.  pp. 481-510. [Article online via JSTOR]

Mizruchi, M. and Galaskiewicz, J. 1994. Networks of inter-organizational relations. Pp. 230-253 [in W&G]

Jones, C., Hesterly, W. S., & Borgatti, S. P. 1997. A general theory of network governance: Exchange conditions and social mechanisms. Academy of Management Review, 22(4): 911-945.

Baker, W.E. & Faulkner, R.R. 1993. The social organization of conspiracy: Illegal networks in the heavy electrical equipment industry. American Sociological Review, 58, 837-860. [jstor]

Application: Gulati, Ranjay, 1995. Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliances. (Special Research Forum: Intra- and Interorganizational Cooperation). Vol. 38, Academy of Management Journal, 02-01-1995, pp 85(28).. [review available online]

Uzzi, B. 1996. The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: The network effect. American Sociological Review 61: 674-698

Optional: Perrow, C. 1992. Small firm networks. in [N&E]. 

D&F:4(78-86 only)

Homework: None.


1 May.  Network Consulting


Krackhardt, D. & Hanson, J. 1993. Informal Networks: The Company. Harvard Business Review. July-August. 104-111.

LaBarre, P. 1994. The Other Network. Industry Week Sept 19th. pp 33-36.

Forbes interview with Karen Stephenson

Application: Zifa / Pinnacle Business Group

Valdis Krebs

Karen Stephenson



8 May.  The Network Perspective



Salancik, G. 1995. Wanted: A good network theory of organization. Administrative Science Quarterly 40:345-349

Emirbayer, M. & Goodwin, J. 1994. Network analysis, culture, and the problem of agency. American Journal of Sociology 6: 1411-54.

Mayhew, B. 1980. Structuralism vs. individualism part 1: Shadow boxing in the dark. Social Forces :335-375.

D&F:Introduction (pp. 1-12)

Coleman, J.S. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory. Chapter 1 (pp. 1-23).

DiMaggio, P. 1992. Nadel's paradox revisited. In N&E.

Mayhew, B. and P. Schollaert. 1980. The concentration of wealth: A sociological model.  Sociological Focus 13: 1-35. [skim]

Monge, P. & Contractor, N. 1998. Emergence of communication networks. Manuscript online.